Disagreement in Monetary Policy Decision-Making

Recent research reveals how supply and demand shocks influence monetary policy decisions within central bank committees. Under a dual mandate, supply shocks lead to heightened disagreements due to the challenge of balancing inflation stabilisation with output preservation.

Disagreement in Monetary Policy Decision-Making
EU Monetary policy decision-making dynamics

Impact of Supply and Demand Shocks on Monetary Policy Disagreements: A Look at the Economy

Bank for International Settlements Keywords monetary policy supply and demand shocks

In a recent study, economists Carlos Madeira, João Madeira, and Paulo Santos Monteiro delve into the origins of disagreement in monetary policy decisions, focusing on the effects of supply and demand shocks. Central bank decisions are typically taken by a committee, and these decisions are often marked by dissenting votes. The researchers propose that these disagreements can be understood by looking at the impact of supply and demand shocks on the economy. The study posits that under dual mandate conditions, where committee members have differing stances on combating inflation versus minimising unemployment, supply shocks produce more dissent than demand shocks due to the tradeoff between inflation and output stabilisation. Analysing monetary policy decisions made by the Federal Reserve Board between 1957 and 2018, the researchers found that supply shocks led to more disagreements, while demand shocks were associated with less dissent.




Dynamics of Disagreement: How Supply and Demand Shocks Influence Monetary Policy


In an evolving economic landscape, understanding the nuances behind monetary policy decisions is more critical than ever. Recent research by esteemed economists Carlos Madeira, João Madeira, and Paulo Santos Monteiro sheds light on this intricate matrix, revealing how supply and demand shocks shape the discussions and disagreements within central bank committees.


The Dual Mandate Dilemma


Monetary policy, especially within central banks like the Federal Reserve, often operates under a dual mandate: to counter inflation while promoting employment. This dual responsibility becomes a crucible during supply shocks. With the competing goals of inflation stabilization and output preservation, supply shocks create a complex balancing act for policymakers. The study's findings, which encompass Federal Reserve decisions spanning from 1957 to 2018, indicate that these shocks often lead to heightened disagreement among committee members.

On the other hand, demand shocks, with their more predictable impact, tend to foster cohesion within the decision-making body. This unified approach can lead to a more harmonized monetary policy, promoting economic stability and predictability.


Mandate Models and Their Influence


However, the story doesn't end there. The study also emphasizes the importance of a central bank's guiding mandate. While dual-mandated institutions like the Federal Reserve grapple with the challenges highlighted above, singularly focused banks, such as the Bank of England, might exhibit different dynamics.


Implications for Economic Stability


These revelations are invaluable for modern policymakers. They underscore the need for acute awareness of the economic shocks in play when sculpting monetary policies. Such insights can guide committees to craft strategies that maintain economic stability, even in the face of internal disagreements. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of clear communication strategies to keep the public and markets informed, ensuring the credibility and effectiveness of monetary policies.


As central banks worldwide steer their economies through uncertain waters, insights like these offer a compass. By understanding the underpinnings of disagreements and the effects of different economic shocks, policymakers can ensure more informed, unified, and effective monetary decisions.




Read More

The origins of monetary policy disagreement: the role of supply and demand shocks
We investigate how dissent in the FOMC is affected by structural macroeconomic shocks obtained using a medium-scale DSGE model. We find that dissent is less (more) frequent when demand (supply) shocks are the predominant source of inflation fluctuations.




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